Samanids Empire (892- 999)
Samanids (pers. سامانیان) — It is a dynasty ruled in Central Asia and Iran in the period from 819 to 999.
The title of the dynasty came from the name of SamanKhudat from the village of Saman near Balkh. Samanids were consequently the first Persian dynasty to appear after the Arabs conquered the region. For the help they rendered during, Rafi ibn Leis (806-810)rebellion , the sons and grandsons of Saman received the land of the important part of Maveranakhr to rule in 872. Ismoil Samani founded the Samanid Empire in 892. He was the one who united the lands of Maveranakhr and Khorasan (the lands of Central Asia, Afghanistan, Eastern Iran) into a centralized kingdom.
After that, Khorasan, which was controlled by Abbasid Caliphad, also became a part of Samanid Empire. Soon the empire established full independence from Bagdad ( 875-999).
The Ghurids (перс. غوریان) — The Sunni dynasty of Persian origin , which ruled in Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan in the period of 1148-1215. The dynasty came from the dynasty of Suri, which from name of Surri Ibn Muhammad. He was the leader of the Ghur tribe in Mandesh. The center of his kingdom was the land Ghur( that’s why the dynasty was called Ghurids). The founder of the dynasty was Izz al- din Husayn,he was Mallik of the Ghaznavids. In 1150 the Ghurids leaded by Ala al-Din Husayn had defeated the Ghaznavids and conquered Ghazni and khorosan. The capital city was Ghazni. From 1186-1187 theGhurids began the conquest of North India. The city of Lahore became a state capital of the Gurids in India.They initiated the Deli sultanate. At the beginning of 12th century the kingdom was weakened by the civil wars inside the country, it was then politically divided into provinces and finally was conquered by by the Khwārazm-Shāh dynasty.
In 1924, the first government of the Tajik autonomy of the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic was created, and in March 1925 the Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was officially proclaimed. Dushanbe became the capital of the republic. Dushanbe was formed by joining three villages together : Sari-Osiyi, Shokhmansur and Dushanbe. In 1926, the process of mass Sovietisation of the Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic began, and was successfully completed in 1929. The leader of the republic was Shirinsho Shohtemur.
The total Industrialization was in 1930th and during the 2 World War it was followed by the reconstruction of national economy and the work- force flew from Russia and other USSR republics.
The 1st secretary of Soviet Party in Tajikistan was a scientist and historian B.Gafurov. He had been a leader of the republic from 1946 to 1956.
Later in the 50th the heads of the Republic were people from Leninobod( Khujand). That period was significant in the political life of the country, because most of leaders worked in Leninobod( Khujand). Among them were: Uldzhabaev, Rasulov, Nabiev, Mahkhamov). After that in the years of 70th and 80th the country faced with the stagnation at governing , for example Rahmon Nabiev was the leader of the country for 21 years.
The main specialization of the country was in cotton manufacture. And at the period of 60th and 70th the new sectors of the economy were developed, such as: automobile, textile, chemical, hydropower engineering and electro technical industries.
Tajikistan became an Independent country after the putsch in Russia in 1991.
Independence of Tajikistan
September 9th, 1991- the statement and resolution of Shuroi Oli “On the state of Independence of the Republic of Tajikistan” were adopted. And this day was declared as a holiday – Independence Day, in the country.
December 21st, 1991 – the entry of Tajikistan into the Commonwealth of Independent states (CIS)
February 26th, 1992- Tajikistan joined the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE).
March 2nd, 1992 – Tajikistan got its membership at the United Nations (UN).
December 1st,1993 - Tajikistan became a member of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC).
May 5th, 1992 – June 27th, 1997 – the period of the Civil war in the country. Damage, which was caused to the national economy of the country during the war, was more than $ 10 billion.
November 6th,1994 – The Constitutional Day - after the National referendum and some amendments, the main law of the country was adopted, and this day was declared as a holiday in the country by Shuroi Oli.
October 5th, 2009 - the new law “ The state language of Tajikistan” was adopted, since then it is the day of the State Language.
August 14th, 2012 - Tajikistan accededto the Convention of the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards (or New York Convention 1958).
Decmber 10th, 2012 -Tajikistan joined the World Trade Organization (WTO).